Innovation

Research Interests

• Regional innovation
• Community entrepreneurship
• Novel foods
• Novel food regulations
• International value chains
• Indigenous entrepreneurship
• Entrepreneurship teaching


Recent Publications

Wise, G. and Santander, D. E. (2018). Comparative composition analysis of the dried leaves of Ilex guayusa (Loes.). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 6(10). doi:10.12691/jfnr-6-10-4

guayusa composition wordcloud

Guayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes.) is a traditional herbal tea of western Amazon regions and an international commodity of increasing importance. Its consumption is rapidly increasing in the USA and Canada, and the authorization of guayusa extract as a novel food in Europe signals further market growth of this antioxidant and stimulant tea. There is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of guayusa to support its risk assessment and safe consumption internationally as a novel food. Accordingly, this study characterizes the proximate composition of guayusa and elucidates caffeine, amino acid and elemental components. It also evaluates potential microbial, mycotoxin and pesticide residue contaminants. Guayusa’s moisture content, caffeine concentration, amino acid compliment and profile of nutrient and toxic elements including heavy metals present no greater risk to human health than consumption of tea or yerba mate. A low risk due to mycotoxin, bacterial or pesticide residue contamination is also established.
• go to publisher •
• download full text •


Wise, G., Santander, D. E. (2018). Assessing the history of safe use of guayusa. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 6(7): 471-475. doi:10.12691/jfnr-6-7-8

guayusa safe use wordcloud

Guayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes.) is a herbal tea that has been consumed for centuries as a traditional food in western Amazon regions where it is now valued as an antioxidant and a stimulant agent. European Union novel food legislation permits traditional foods to be placed on the market if a history of safe use in a non-EU country can be established. This study investigates the safety of guayusa consumption, analysing provincial hospital admissions data; national disease register data; national toxicology agency call centre data; and national food safety authority data. We conclude that there is a history of safe use of guayusa in Ecuador. Establishing safe guayusa consumption is an important milestone for the authorisation of dried guayusa leaves as a novel food with claimed health benefits in Europe. Consequently, this study has significance for the international product development of guayusa as an antioxidant energy drink.
• go to publisher •
• download full text •


Wise, G. (2016). How Universities Drive Regional Innovation. Canberra, Australia: Department of Industry, Innovation and Science.

regional university wordcloud

This case study tests whether a top-down state-driven development model can establish a university on principles of excellence, impact, and relevance. The creation of Ikiam is analysed qualitatively and the results are discussed in context with national and international policy settings for higher education and innovation. This study provides insights for low and middle-income countries to strengthen higher education and innovation systems through university creation. Internationally it provides practical insights for university master planning taskforces to build organisational strength and distinctiveness through excellence, impact and relevance.
• go to publisher •
• download full text •


Current Research


• An assessment of the role of fab labs as a component of Ecuador's innovation system.
• A case study on the impact of an experiential learning program on recycling awareness of undergraduates.
• A case study on the impact of an experiential learning program on recycling capability of undergraduates.
• A comprehensive review of guayusa as a stimulant and antioxidant novel food with a history of safe use.
• Guidance for the preparation of European Union novel food notifications based on traditional use in a third country.
• Composition and speciation of heavy metals in Ilex guayusa and guayusa tea, an emblematic product of the Ecuadorian Amazon.
• A comprehensive analysis of caffeine composition of Ilex guayusa leaves: consequences for horticulture and harvest period.
• Assessment of Ilex guayusa leaves for amino acids having putative neuropharmacological activity.
• An entrepreneurship bootcamp methodology that balances learning in the areas of research development and commercial development.
• Indigenous entrepreneurs' perspectives on dance as a form of cultural tourism associated with Amazon Kichwa culture.
• Redefining cultural tourism.